- The definition of following terms are:
a) Pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a listener (or reader). It is also the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.
b) Deixis is a technical term (from Greek) for one of the most basic things we do with utterances. It means ”pointing” via languages. It concerns the ways in which languages encode or grammaticalize features of the context of utterance or speech events, and thus also concerns ways in which the interpretation of utterances depends on the analysis of that context of utterance.
c) The word implicature is derived from the verb ‘to imply’, as its cognate ‘implication’. Etymologically, ‘to imply’ means ‘to fold something into something else; hence, that which is implied, is folded in, and has to be ‘unfolded’ in order to be understood. An implicature is generated intentionally by the speaker and may (or may not) be understood by the hearer. Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean (in some general sense) more than what is actually “said” (more than what is literally expressed by the conventional sense of the linguistic expression uttered, and Grice uses the term of “what is said” as technical term for the truth-conditional content of an expression).
d) Speech act is actions performed via utterances which commonly given more specific labels, such as apology, complaint, compliment, invitation, promise, or request. The study of speech acts is important because all linguistic communication involves linguistic acts.
e) Adjacency pairs are the automatic sequences. They always consist of a first part and second part produced by different speakers. The utterance of the part immediately creates an expectation of the utterance of a second part of the same pair, of which question- answer, greeting-greeting, offer-acceptance, apology-minimization are prototypical.
Illocutionary force is the illocutionary act is performed via the communicative force of an utterance.